60 Caesar returns from Spain,
first triumvirate between Casesar, Crassus and Pompey.
59 Caesar consul. Pompey marries Caesar's daughter Julia. Caesar
given proconsulship of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum; senate adds
Transalpine Gaul to this.
58-51 Caesar's campaigns in Gaul
58 Tribunate of Clodius - corn law. Cicero exiled. Cyprus
annexed. Caesar defeats Helvetii and Ariovistos
57 Clodius and Milo riot in Rome. Return of Cicero. Caesar
defeats Nervii and other Belgae
56 Conference of the triumvirs at Luca.
55 Second consulship of Crassus and Pompey. First stone theatre
of Rome, built by Pompey on the Campus Martius. Caesar bridges the Rhine,
invades Germany, then Britain.
54 Pompey, near Rome, governs Spain through legates. Death of
Julia. Caesar's second expedition to Britain. revolt in north eastern
Gaul. Crassus prepares for Parthian campaign.
53 Rioting in Rome. Battle of Carrhae: Roman army defeated by
the Parthians, Crassus killed, the Roman army standards taken as booty
52 Milo kills Clodius. Trial of Milo. Pompey sole consul. Revolt
of Vercingetorix in Gaul. Siege of Alesia, Caesar victorious.
51 Parthian invasion of Syria
49-45 Civil War - Julius Caesar fighting the Pompeians
49 On January 10 Caesar crosses the Rubicon and marches on Rome
in defiance of the Senate. Pompey leaves for Greece. Caesar dictator fir
first time, for eleven days, passes emergency legislation. Caesar in
Spain, defeats Pompeians.
48-47 Caesar becomes involved in Egyptian dynastic struggles
48 Caesar consul for second time.Caesar crosses to Greece,
defeats Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt where he is stabbed to
death on landing. Caesar in Egypt. Alexandrine War. Caesar makes Cleopatra
queen of Egypt.
47 Caesar dictator for second time in his absence. Caesar
defeats King Pharnaces II of Pontus. Caesar returns to Rome, then leaves
46 Caesar crushes surviving Pompeian forces under Scipio and
Cato at Thapsus. Caesar dictator second time, consul third time. Cato
commits suicide. Caesar returns to Rome, reforms calendar. Caesar leaves
45 Caesar dictator third time, consul fourth time. In battle at
Munda in Spain the last Roman Republican resistance is crushed
44 Caesar dictator fourth time (for life), consul fifth time.
March 15, Caesar murdered by Brutus, Cassius, and their co-conspirators
acting for the Republicans. Octavian returns from Greece.