Cities of Vesuvius
Designed by Elizabeth Graham
Designed by Elizabeth Graham
Pompeii and Herculaneum
A Question of Geography
1. What natural features would have contributed to its growth ?
2. What other locational factors would have influenced its growth and character ?
3. How is Herculaneum different?
Events of 79AD
Click on the websites and answer the following questions;
1. What is a pyroclastic flow and surge?
2. Give a definition of " nuee ardente "
3. What information has been added to our understanding by more recent eruptions
4. Outline the theoretical stages of the eruption.
5. Click on the following link and make notes on what depositional evidence was found by Sigurdsson. Note the significant differences between Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Sigurdsson had been assigned by National Geographic to match stratigraphic evidence with the observations made by Pliny. As evidence, why is this problematic
The Written Evidence
Click on the website below. Search the Ancient sources;
1. What light does Seneca, Tacitus and
Dio Cassius shed on ancient understanding of volcanoes? How does this
explain the initial human response to the eruption ?
2.Read Pliny's First letter to Tacitus. What limitations might this have as a source of evidence? What evidence is there of Pliny's attempt to eulogize his uncle ?
3. What route did Pliny the Elder take ? Why was he forced to change direction ?
4 What physical observations does Pliny make about the stages of the eruption?
5. What other observations does Pliny make that cannot be gauged by archaeological evidence?
6.Assess the value of Pliny's letters as evidence
From Treasure Seeking to Scientific Investigation- The History
From Treasure Seeking to Scientific Investigation- The History of Excavation
Go to History of Excavation. Construct a table under the following headings; Period ;Archaeologists; Area of Excavation ;and Nature of Excavation
Construct a similar table for Herculaneum.
With reference to the above table;
1. How did the approach to excavation change over the periods of time.?
2. What differences were there between the two towns and suggest reasons for this?
" Dead Men Do Tell Tales "
1.Read the following sources and explain the significance of forensic archaeology in revealing not only the people of Pompeii but the circumstances of their death.
2.Choose 1 individual whose remains were discovered from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Give a detailed description of them. Make note of what artifacts were found with them. What information does this add ?
3.What controversy exists about the sort of people left behind.? Has forensic evidence provided the answer.
4. What was the difference between the way people died in Pompeii and Herculaneum
5. What new interpretation of Pompeii and Herculaneum have come to light from forensic Evidence
The Urban Environment - Public and Private Spaces
View the power point presentation and construct a mind map which explores the nature of urban planning in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Make observation about not only the nature and function of buildings but, street width and patterns, drainage, architecture, and zonal use. Make note of any differences between the two towns.
Using the mind map as a source and with specific reference to archaeological evidence answer the following question in 250 words;
What was the function of the Forum in the civic life of Pompeii ?
Click on the following website and copy and label the plan of a typical Atrium house.
Go to the following link and view the power point presentation. Make a series of dot points about the different types of Housing in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Is there any difference between the two towns ?
Using the suggested references below , research one house of Pompeii or Herculaneum in detail. Include a detailed description of the house, when it was excavated, what contents were found there and who may have possibly lived there. What information does this house give us about the lives of the people.
Producers and Consumers- Economic Life.
Click on the link below and view the power point presentation. Construct a table showing types of industry and the associated archaeological evidence.
Click on the following website and make notes on current fieldwork and what it reveals about economic life in Pompeii.
What was different about Herculaneum? Since only 30% of Herculaneum has been excavated , how definite can we be about the nature of the town?
Gods and Godesses
Using the above link and with reference to the article " Private Religion " ;
Construct a pyramid showing the hierarchy of gods worshipped by the Romans.
Religion was a popular theme by artists and sculpters. Find examples of each level of religious worship from either Pompeii or Herculaneum
Suggest reasons why Romans were receptive to the introduction of foreign cults. Answer this question with reference to the role that religion plays in a society.
Frescoes Murals and Mosaics
View the power point presentation making notes about the different types of art that has been revealed
Graffiti- Walls have voices
Click on the link below. Study the different inscriptions from the walls of Pompeii and Herculaneum. and complete the questions
With reference to four pieces of archaeological evidence, explain their significance in providing a picture of Roman Provincial life in 1st century AD
CLICK ON THE LINK FOR OUTCOMES AND MARKING RUBRIC
Entertainment and Leisure
Take the plunge and click on the following links;
1. With reference to archaeological evidence assess the importance of the baths to the daily life of the inhabitants.
2. What does archaeology reveal about other forms of entertainment?
" Picking Up the Pieces "- Conservation and Management
Click on the following websites and read about the problems of modern day Pompeii Herculane.um
1. Outline the major issues facing management?
2. What impact has tourism had on the sites and what is being done to minimize the negative impact?
3. What ethical issues face archaeologists today?
4. In groups, representing a team of archaeologists, managers, financial and marketing consultants prepare a tender for the management of the two sites. Outline your individual and collective strategies and present as a power point.